Archive for the ‘C++’ Category

Qt Open Source 4.3.4 and Visual Studio

Wednesday, February 27th, 2008

The commercial version of Qt has a very nice feature. Given a qmake project file, it is able to create a .vcproj file that can be opened with Visual Studio. If everything is setup correctly you can instantly compile your project using the Visual Studio C++ compiler. This way it is not much of a problem to develop a C++ project where some developers are linux geeks and some are lazy windows users who do not like mingw or make (for good reasons, of course) and who absolutely hate gdb (for even better reasons).

Most unfortunately, this feature was not available in the Open Source version of Qt. You either had to create their project files manually, which is a very painful task for several reasons – one of them being that the MOC and the UIC have to be integrated into the build process. Or you had to set up a Makefile project using Visual Studio. That’s what I was about to do this morning, when I stumbled across the following article:

Qt/Windows Open Source Edition to support VS Express

The most important statement in above article is the following:

“We have decided to support Visual Studio Express with Qt/Windows Open Source – we are dual licensing the MSVC Makefile and project generator (Sorry, no VS Integration for Open Source users)”

——RANT MODE: ON—–

Obviously, second-most important statement is this one:

“The Visual Studio Express environment is just so much superior and easier to use for existing Windows developers compared to what MinGW provides.” – I could not agree more.

——RANT MODE: OFF—–

So since 4.3.2 even the Open Source version of Qt is able to create vcproj files. However, since the Open Source version is configured for mingw when installed, just throwing qmake at your project file will only create a usual Makefile.

Creating a Visual Studio Project File from a qmake Project File

  1. To create a vcproj file, you will have to use the correct mkspec and change the template from “app” to “vcapp”. The following command does the job for Visual Studio 2005:
    qmake -tp vc -spec win32-msvc2005
    If you are using a different version of Visual Studio, have a loot at QTDIR/mkspecs to find the correct mkspec for you. QTDIR is the directory where you installed Qt.
    If your project file was named “myproject.pro” you will now find a file named “myproject.vcproj” in the same directory.
  2. Try to build the application. You will be greeted by the following error message:
    fatal error LNK1181: cannot open input file 'c:\<QTDIR>\lib\qtmain.lib', where QTDIR corresponds to the directory of your Qt installation.

Building Qt with the Visual Studio Compiler

The problem is, that the prebuilt binaries that come with the Open Source Qt distribution for Windows cannot be used by the Visual Studio compiler. Heck, they do not even have the right name.

How to fix this? Well, you have to build those files from the Qt sourcecode using the Visual Studio compiler. Do the following:

  1. (Skip this step, if you are using the commercial version of Visual Studio)
    The Express Version of Visual Studio does not include the Platform SDK. Unfortunately this SDK contains some headers and libs that are required to compile Qt. Go to Windows Server 2003 R2 Platform SDK Web Install to install it. Make sure to include the Core SDK AND the Web Workshop SDK during installation.
    Have a look in the directory of the SDK and locate the file SetEnv.Cmd. Add the directory to your path (Should be something like C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows Server 2003 R2. Do not forget to surround it with double quotes (“) if it contains blanks.)
  2. Add <VisualStudioDirectory> \VC\bin to your path.
  3. Then open a command line and go to the Qt installation directory. Type vcvars32.bat.
    This will create the environment variables required for the next step. The batch file resides in the VC\bin directory of your Visual Studio installation.
  4. (Skip this step, if you are using the commercial version of Visual Studio)
    Type SetEnv.cmd to create the environment variables necessary for including the files of the Platform SDK
  5. Type configure -platform win32-msvc2005.
    This will tell Qt to prepare itself for being compiled by the Visual Studio compiler. Again, if you use another version of VS than 2005, replace win32-msvc-2005 with the makespec appropriate for you.
  6. Type nmake. Then go and have a break. Compiling Qt will take a while.
    Actually, I was surprised that this last step works. Up to this day I thought that the OS version of Qt could not be built with Visual Studio. You had to apply a batch distributed by some helpful people under the name qtwin (Here is a german tutorial on that stuff). It appears that those dark days are over now.
  7. Now try building your application again. Everything should work fine now.

I hope this guide helps you to get going with Visual Studio and Qt Open Source. If you have any trouble or suggestions, feel free to drop me a mail or post a comment.

Making function declarations talk: auto_ptr and memory management in C++

Thursday, July 5th, 2007

Here’s just something I wrote some time ago and rotted on my harddisk. It might be helpful for people new to C++.

———————-
In all but the smallest projects, code is much more often read than (re)written. This means, that a large amount of the development time goes into reading code, which therefore should be made as easy as possible. It also means, that almost everything you can do, to make your code easier to be read should be done because the additional time you spent in writing the code will more than pay off in the future. We all know (and perhaps hate) some ways, to make code easier to read: use comments, use long variable names, give functions a clear name that corresponds to their purpose etc.

These rules can be applied in almost every programming language. But if you and your fellow developers really know the programming language, you can do more. You can express certain expectations and warranties by using features of the language and by this, express yourself more clearly (special bonus: you may even omit a few comments, because your code speaks for itself). Additionally, sometimes the compiler and the runtime environment help you to enforce certain requirements on how your code is to be used (see Design by Contract).

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